It is during the preparatory year (CP) that children learn to read and write and must acquire a fluent reading. Learning that was obviously prepared upstream in kindergarten. As parents, you also have a role to play in this learning by helping your child to practice after school but also by introducing him to reading from an early age. “ Your child will have to reread the reading lessons discussed in class every evening. The regular resumption of these lessons and the daily training in writing help to fix the learning. They promote the development of automatisms allowing your child to read and write better and better and faster. ”
The different methods of learning to read
The syllabic method
This is the oldest method. It consists of associating the letters with a sound. The child first learns the alphabet. He is then asked to decipher the sound produced by two associated letters, the syllable, then to pronounce the syllables put end to end to form words. Namely that reading syllables is a job that the child has already started in kindergarten. This method is rather long but once understood, it allows the child to decipher any word. The syllabic method is also the one recommended to teachers.
The global method
Sometimes criticized, the global method as opposed to the syllabic method because it starts from the complete word to arrive at the syllable. The child begins by visually memorizing the words (their spelling) that they often pronounce as if photographing them. For example, he will be able to read the word “mom” without knowing how to break it down into syllables and therefore without knowing the letters that compose it. Each word is associated with a global image in the child’s head. The first limitation of this method is that the child is unable to read new words, words he has never spoken. He can only read the words he has memorized because he can recognize them. In this method, learning the alphabet is done gradually: by dint of learning complete words, the child understands that certain associations of letters form sounds. It is only there that the study of syllables begins. The global method places more emphasis on the meaning of words compared to the syllabic method.
The mixed or semi-global method
As its name suggests, this method is a mixture of the two preceding ones. The child begins by memorizing a certain number of words. These are generally words that he uses often and therefore has a meaning for him like dad, mom, the days of the week, the names of his relatives, etc. At the same time, he learns the alphabet and works on the syllables in order to be able to decipher all the words in the long term. This method, which is shorter than the syllabic method, motivates the child to continue learning because he starts by already knowing how to read a few words (those learned by heart). But the fact of bringing a little of the syllabic method allows the child to know how to apprehend the new words.
The Montessori reading method
It is also called the phonological method because the child must first associate sounds with letters appearing on pictures. Learning, therefore, begins with the study of sounds and can begin at the age of 3. When the child hears a sound, he associates it with spelling. This is why at the beginning he writes the words as he hears them, it is phonetic writing. The child not knowing how to write at 3 years old, he uses cards on which are written letters, to form the words he hears. By dint of associating sounds with letters, the child knows on his own how to form words and then read them.
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